Articles

International Journal Of Water Resources & Arid Environments (IJWRAE) Vol 6(1) April 2017

Return to the IJWRAE index page.

Attachments:
Download this file (1e.pdf)01-12[Satellite Remote Sensing Analyses for Hydrogeological Assessment of Rabigh Drainage Basin, Red Sea Coast, Saudi Arabia – Nayyer Alam Zaigham]
Download this file (2e.pdf)13-19[Erosion Sensitivity Mapping Using a Multi-Criteria Approach under GIS Environment The Case of the Semiarid Hodna Basin in Central Algeria – Mahmoud Hasbaia]
Download this file (3e.pdf)20-32[Hydrochemical Studies of Groundwater at Al Hassa Oasis, Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia – Ahmed S. El-Mahmoudi]
Download this file (4e.pdf)33-40[Stormwater Infiltration Facilities-Philosophy, Design – David Duchan]
Download this file (5e.pdf)41-49[ Water Accounting Concepts for Enhancing Water Productivity in the Irrigated Agriculture at Field and Basin Levels – S.A. Abd El-Hafez]
Download this file (6e.pdf)50-57[Derivation of the Unit Hydrograph of Allith Basin in the South West of Saudi Arabia – Mohammad Albishi]
Download this file (7e.pdf)58-64[ Assessing Evapotranspiration and Drought Stress over a Semiarid Agricultural Area in Algeria with RS Data – Abderrahmane Hamimed]
Download this file (8e.pdf)65-79[Groundwater Pollution Vulnerability Assessment Using A New GIS-Based DRASTIC Method – S.M. Hamza]
Download this file (9e.pdf)80-88[ Climate Change Impact on Precipitation in Arid Areas of Pakistan – I. Hassan]
Download this file (10e.pdf)89-95[Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam Impact on Long Term Operation of High Aswan Dam Reservoir – Hassan Ibrahim Mohamed]
Download this file (11e.pdf)96-102[Silica Interfaced Biocarbon Technology for Decolourization and Removal of Pollutants from Distillery Wastewater and its Safe Use in Farming Practice: A Green Concept – Malairajan Singanan]
Download this file (12e.pdf)103-114[ Economic Feasibility of Small Scale Solar Powered RO Desalination for Brackish/Saline Groundwater in Arid Regions – Mohamed A. Dawoud]
Download this file (13e.pdf)115-125[Ground Water Exploration and Mapping the Seawater Intrusion at Matruh Area, North Coast, Egypt – El-Said A. AL-Sayed]
Download this file (14e.pdf)126-132[ Combating Desertification Through Sustainable Use of Saline Habitats – Mirvat E. Gobarah]

Water Management & Protection Prize

Overview

psipw5thwinnersteam 4web 4Dr. Daniel P. Loucks (Cornell University, USA).

Dr. Loucks has developed and implemented systems tools that provide an effective, dynamic, and successful framework to address practical water resources management problems worldwide. His work examines the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems.

Decision makers in numerous countries, including developing nations, have been trained and influenced by Dr. Loucks’ approach to water resources planning. This is precisely why he is known as the “father of the systems approach to water resources management”.

Winner Profile

Dr. Daniel P. Loucks is Professor Emeritus in the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell University.

Education:

• Ph.D. 1965; Cornell University, Sanitary Engineering & Water Resources Systems Engineering.
• M.S. 1955; Yale university, Forestry. • B.S. 1954; Pennsylvania State University, Forestry.

Selected Awards:

2013: Honorary Diplomate of the American Academy of Water Resources Engineers
2012: Quentin Martin Best Practice Oriented Paper (with S. Sandoval-Solis and D.C. McKinney), ASCE
2010: EWRI (ASCE) Lifetime Achievement Award
2008: Biennial Medal of the International Environmental Modeling and Software Society
2005: Grand Prix International de Cannes, de l'Eau
2000: Warren A. Hall Medal, Universities Council on Water Resources
1999: Distinguished Lecture Award, National Science Council, Taiwan
1998: Commander's Award for Public Service, US Army Corps of Engineers
1992: U.S. Senior Scientist Research Award, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany
1991: Joe Wyatt Challenge (EDUCOM) Award for "Interactive River System Simulation" software
1990: Distinguished Lecture Award, National Science Council, Taiwan
1986: Julian Hinds Award, American Society of Civil Engineers
1981: US Navy Commendation Medal
1975: Fulbright-Hayes Award for Lecturing and Research, Yugoslavia
1970: Walter L. Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize, ASCE

 

Acceptance Speech

It’s been a while since I have had the opportunity to visit the UN let alone give a short talk to any of its members and guests. In the late 60’s the UN sent me to Poland to do some work with Polish scientists, engineers and politicians on water management. I’ve been forever grateful for that unique experience and opportunity. It was an excellent start on my career in water resources management. It was also an opportunity for me to see how things worked on the other side of the iron curtain. What I learned on that assignment, and subsequently many others in various Eastern Europe countries and the USSR, is that how things worked over there were not much different than how things work on this side of the curtain even if the political systems differed. People are driven by the same incentives, no matter where and under what regime they live, it seems.

Now I’m here again at the UN thanks to the Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz prize committee, and indeed I’m very honored and humbled to have been selected for their management award. Why humbled? I am humbled because whoever receives such a prestigious award, many others are deserving of it. I’ve had the good fortune to work with many of these smart, creative, dedicated and deserving individuals and for that I am also thankful. They have done their best to keep me educated and honest.

I’ve also been fortunate to have worked in a number of Middle East countries over my career. But I’ve been to Riyadh only once and that was quite a while ago. I remember paying about $20 (then) for a beef hamburger there. Maybe it’s because it takes over 2400 liters of water to produce a hamburger. We all know water is a vitally important and scarce resource in that region of the world. It’s obviously important everywhere, as everyone in this world is now recognizing, but especially in regions that are dry. And that characterizes the Middle East. We can only assume that if water was both more available and managed more effectively, we would have less conflict.

Those of us in my profession who have been working on water management issues are leaving plenty of work for those who follow us. Why: Because management involves much more than just planning, designing, building and operating engineering infrastructure or even implementing economic measures. It involves meeting the multiple needs of people, all involving water use, and the priorities of those needs are not always the same. Furthermore, they change. Hence it involves politics. And that is exactly why some consider water management a constant challenge, having to continually adapt to not only changing and uncertain climates but also to changing social and environmental conditions and goals, many of which are conflicting and unpredictable. It’s not just that we find it hard to predict the probabilities of possible future outcomes of management decisions, we find it hard to predict what the outcomes and subsequent human responses will be. We often are surprised by these outcomes and responses that we were not smart enough to predict. Hence the emphasis on defining management policies that are adaptive, robust, and resilient, all terms you have heard of even in the popular press.

I have to say I’ve really enjoyed being a participant in this adventure focused on discovering and implementing ways of managing water better, and especially trying to help others to do the same. And to receive an award such as this one to do what is still so much fun, makes it even more enjoyable. Thank you, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz, for establishing this prize and indeed for honoring me with one of them. I am indeed grateful.

Daniel P. Loucks

Winning Work

1. Daniel P. Loucks and E. van Beek. Water Resources Systems Planning and Management: An Introduction to Methods, Models, and Applications UNESCO Publishing, Paris, France (2005).

2. Gemma Carr, Günter Blöschl, Daniel P. Loucks. “Developing a dynamic framework to examine the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems” Evolving Water Resource Systems: Understanding, Predicting and Managing Water-Society Interactions (ed. A. Castellarin, S. Ceola, E. Toth, A. Montanari), IAHS Publication 364, Proceedings of ICWRS2014, Bologna, Italy (June 2014), pp. 326-332.

3. Daniel P. Loucks, Thomas B. Wild, George W. Annandale, Prakash Kaini. “Maintaining Sediment Flows through Hydropower Dams in the Mekong River Basin” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, volume 142, issue 1 (9 July 2015).

4. William J. Cosgrove, Daniel P. Loucks. “Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions” Journal of Water Resources Research, volume 51, issue 6 (June 2015), pp. 4823–4839.

5. Warren E. Walker, Gemma Carr, Daniel P. Loucks. “Social Responses to Water Management Decisions” Environmental Processes, volume 2, issue 3 (2015), pp. 485-509.

 

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Alternative Water Resources Prize


Overview

Dr. Rong Wang & Dr. Anthony G. Fane (Nanyang Technological University, Singapore).

Dr. Wang and Dr. Fane have developed membranes that combine forward osmosis with a reverse osmosis (RO)-like inner selective layer and a novel and previously undiscovered positively charged nanofiltration (NF)-like outer selective layer. This novel structure provides enhanced performance by reducing the effects of scaling and flux losses caused by internal concentration polarization.

These membranes promise to be a key factor for the reduction of the energy required for water treatment by membrane processes.

Winner Profiles

Dr. Rong Wang

Dr. Wang is Professor and Chair of the School of Civil & Environmental Engineering; and Director of the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Education:

• Ph.D. 1992; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chemical Engineering.
• Beng. 1984; Zhejiang University, China, Thermal Engineering.

Selected Awards:

2013: R&D Award of the Singapore Minister for National Development
2011: IDA World Congress Best Paper Presentation Award
2011: “Best Faculty Mentor” in Temasek Foundation-NTU LEaRN Programme
2001: Progress Award of Beijing Science and Technology
1998: Institute of Processing Engineering Best paper Award, Chinese Academy of Sciences
1995: Best Paper, Institute of Processing Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences
1994: Excellent Science & Technology Paper by Beijing Metal Society of China

 

 

Dr. Anthony Gordon Fane

Dr. Fane is Visiting Professor at Nanyang Techhnological University, Singapore and Professor at the University of New South Wales, Australia.

Education:

• Ph.D. & D.I.C. 1968; Imperial College, London.
• BSc 1961; Imperial College, London, Chemical Engineering.

Selected Awards:

2003: European Membrane Society – Honorary life membership
2003: Centenary Medal for Service in Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science
1996: Esso Award of Excellence in Chemical Engineering
1989: Whiffen Medal of the Institution for Chemical Engineers, for Developments in Membrane Technology

Acceptance Speech

Your Royal Highness Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz, Your Excellency United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, respected members of the Prize Council, distinguished guests, fellow colleagues, ladies and gentlemen:

Please allow me to express my deepest gratitude to the Prize Council, chaired by His Royal Highness, for the recognition which has been accorded to our work on forward osmosis done at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. My colleague, Dr. Anthony Fane, and I are honoured and privileged to be presented with the Alternative Water Resources Prize by the Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water for our work on sustainable water solutions. I also understand that I am the first Chinese female scientist to receive this prize and this is indeed a proud moment for me.

Fresh water is a critical resource which is being depleted at an alarming rate today. Our research is driven by the need for solutions, which are partially technological in nature so as to reduce reliance on inadequate conventional water resources. There is a need for alternatives which are renewable, sustainable and accessible to all. Forward osmosis is an emerging technology which can be one of these solutions because it can lead to water reclamation and recycling at lower energy intensity.

My colleagues and I developed the first thin film composite forward osmosis hollow fibre membrane, and thereafter improved it with anti-scaling and anti-internal concentration polarization capacity to provide enhanced forward osmosis performance. This development has made it possible to combine forward osmosis with existing technologies such as reverse osmosis, membrane bioreactor and membrane distillation, to create novel hybrid membrane systems which allow for the wide-ranging applications of the technology. The intention with such developments is to provide cost-effective and eco-efficient solutions for countries facing high water stress.

Although the technology has been developed in Singapore to address the nation’s water stress, such stress is not unique to Singapore. A report by the World Resource Institute has ranked both Saudi Arabia and Singapore as the top 10 water-stressed countries in the world by 2040. In the context of Singapore, visionary leadership has led to strategic actions which have enabled better water resource management leading to enhanced water security. For example, Singapore's four NEWater plants can meet up to 30% of the nation’s current water needs. By 2060, NEWater is expected to meet as much as 55% of Singapore’s future water demand and NEWater production is membrane-based. Such production facilities have been and will continue to be supported by research and engineering developments. Recognition for such efforts is important to motivate each succeeding generation of research scientists and engineers. The Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water is an excellent example of such recognition. By recognizing science and technology that contribute to sustainable water solutions, it not only helps to motivate researchers to stay committed to their cause but more importantly inspire future generations to champion this cause.

I started my journey to develop the advanced membrane technology for water in 2008 at the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE), and the Singapore Membrane Technology Centre (SMTC) which is a unit within the Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. We formed a multi-disciplinary team to engage in both fundamental and applied membrane research and undertook to translate the research outcomes into real-world products and solutions. We have been receiving financial support from Singapore’s Economic Development Board (EDB); PUB, Singapore’s national water agency; and the National Research Foundation, Singapore (NRF). At this special occasion, I would like to thank our students, research colleagues, and local and international collaborators for their technical contributions, and funding agencies for their funding support. This award is also dedicated to our families for their encouragement and unconditional support which has been vital for our professional success.

This is the 7th award of the Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water over the past 14 years. The spirit behind the Alternative Water Resources Prize is also about human resource investment. No one technology can remain always relevant in the light of the ever-changing demographics, economics and climate. It is only through developing the competencies of young researchers and investing in the next generation of water scientists and engineers can we continuously innovate technologies to ensure we can successfully use alternative water resources to ensure future water security. For this reason, I applaud the efforts of His Royal Highness and the Prize Council in promoting novel membrane technologies and facilitating cutting-edge water research through this prize. I am sure that the success of this very important Water Prize has already inspired the future generation of professionals to continue developing innovative alternative resources to help deliver robust solutions for a water-wise world of tomorrow.

Thank you.
Rong Wang

Winning Work

1. Rong Wanga, Lei Shia, Chuyang Y. Tanga, Shuren Choua, Changquan Qiub, Anthony G. Fane. “Characterization of novel forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes” Journal of Membrane Science, volume 355, issues 1–2 (15 June 2010), pp. 158–167.

2. Shuren Choua, Lei Shia, Rong Wanga, Chuyang Y. Tanga, Changquan Qiub, Anthony G. Fane. “Characteristics and potential applications of a novel forward osmosis hollow fiber membrane” Desalination, volume 261, issue 3 (31 October 2010), pp. 365–372

3. Laurentia Setiawana, Rong Wanga, Kang Lic, Anthony G. Fane. “Fabrication of novel poly(amide–imide) forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes with a positively charged nanofiltration-like selective layer” Journal of Membrane Science, volume 369, issues 1–2 (1 March 2011), pp. 196–205.

4. Shuren Choua, Rong Wanga, Lei Shia, Qianhong Shea, Chuyang Tanga, Anthony Gordon Fane. “Thin-film composite hollow fiber membranes for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) process with high power density” Journal of Membrane Science, volume 389 (1 February 2012), pp. 25–33.

5. Wangxi Fanga, Rong Wanga, Shuren Choua, Lauren Setiawana, Anthony Gordon Fane. “Composite forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes: Integration of RO- and NF-like selective layers to enhance membrane properties of anti-scaling and antiinternal concentration polarization” Journal of Membrane Science, volumes 394–395 (15 March 2012), pp. 140–150.

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Groundwater Prize

Overview

Dr. Tissa H. Illangasekare (Colorado School of Mines, USA).

Dr. Illangasekare has improved the fundamental understanding of fluid flow and chemical transport in porous media through innovative multi-scale experimentation and modelling, leading to the reliable prediction of the long‐term fate of pollutants in groundwater systems and the behaviour of multiple phase fluids in shallow and deep geologic formations.

His research on the fundamental understanding of the behaviour of multiphase fluids in heterogeneous porous media has addressed issues of the permanent storage of CO2 in deep geologic formations, with a focus on the trapping of CO2 and potential leakage to shallow aquifers. His work addresses the mathematical modelling of multi-phase flow, the effect of geologic heterogeneity in enhancing capillary and dissolution trapping of supercritical CO2, and a benchmark modelling study of CO2 gas evolution in groundwater systems.

Winner Profile

Dr. Tissa H. Illangasekare is AMAX Endowed Distinguished Chair of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Professor of Civil Engineering, at the Colorado School of Mines, as well as the Founding Director of the Center for the Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP). He is also a Research Affiliate in the Program for Applied Mathematics at the University of Colorado.

Education:

• Ph.D. 1978; Colorado State University, Civil Engineering.
• M.Eng. 1974; Asian Institute of Technology - Bangkok, Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering.
• B.Sc. 1971; University of Ceylon, Civil Engineering.

Selected Awards:

2015: AGU’s Bowie Lecture-Langbein Lecture Award for life-time contributions to hydrologic science
2012: Henry Darcy Medal from the European Geosciences Union
2011: Boland Hydrology Award, American Geophysical Union
2010: Honorary Doctorate in Natural Science and Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden
2010: President's Honor Award, Academic Excellence & Extracurricular Activities, Asian Institute of Technology
2010: Colorado School of Mines Senate Excellence in Research Award
2005: Best Research Project Award, SERDP/ESTCP (with B. Siegrist, M. Crimi and J. Marr)
1999: Karen Morehouse Best Paper Award from EPA Conference of Hazardous Waste Research
1993: Karen Morehouse Best Paper Award from EPA Conference of Hazardous Waste Research
1982-3: College of Engineering Award for Outstanding Research Faculty, Colorado State University
1981-2: Outstanding Performer, Research Faculty, Department of Civil Engineering, Colorado State University

Acceptance Speech

H.E. Mr. Ban Ki-moon, H.R.H. Prince Khaled Bin Sultan Bin Abdualziz, Honorable Minster of Water, ambassadors and delegates from UN Friends of Water member states, and ladies and gentleman.

Coming from a small village in the hills of Sri Lanka, it has been a long journey for me to be standing here in front of this distinguished gathering that includes the other world-renowned scientists who are honored today. I am humbled and honored to accept this prestigious award recognizing my small contributions to the vast field of groundwater. His Royal Highness Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz was quite visionary in establishing these awards to recognize the importance of creative science to protect one of our most precious resources. His Excellency, the Secretary General, has pointed out that shortages of water contribute to poverty, social hardship, impede development, and create tensions in conflict-prone regions. As professionals and global citizens, we have a responsibility and a moral obligation to help sustain and protect this critical resource we all share. Prestigious prizes like these will motivate creative people to pursue research to develop innovative solutions to pressing water problems. I thank PSIPW Chairman H.R.H. Prince Khaled Bin Sultan Bin Abdulaziz and PSIPW for continuing this all-important effort. I would also like to thank the prize council and those scientists who supported my candidacy.

The challenges of the 21st century are driven by demands on diminishing natural resources that include water, dictated by the unsustainable lifestyles of a rapidly increasing world population. It is expected that every 13-14 years, the world’s population, which stood at of 7.3 billion in 2015, will increase by one billion people. Some alarming statistics show the level of demand for freshwater and the importance of clean water for human survival and health. Humans already use 54% of available freshwater. By 2023, the available water for the global population will decrease by 30%. In 2000, UNESCO estimated that the number of people that died because of low water quality exceeded 2.2 million. One in 10 of the world’s population lacks access to safe water. To meet these challenges of sustaining precious water resources, we must continually strive to explore the science and develop technologies for efficient use and protection of quality. Groundwater is central, and a primary feature of the global water picture, especially in the arid and coastal regions. Groundwater is 30.1% of freshwater on the globe. Surface water amounts to 1.2% and the rest, 68.7%, is stored in glaciers and icecaps. It is not well known that groundwater is the world’s most extracted raw material.

In the latter part of the last century, considerable scientific progress has been made in the core discipline of groundwater by improving the basic understanding of water flow and the fate and transport of contaminants. This new knowledge has led to modeling tools for efficient management, strategies for reducing overdraft, schemes for aquifer replenishment, better water quality monitoring, and schemes to reduce contamination risks. However, the complexities and challenges of the problems of this century require rapid progress in both basic and applied sciences associated with groundwater. Sea-level rise expected to be driven by climate change and overdraft that trigger saltwater intrusion will threaten aquifers in coastal areas where close to a billion people live. New industrial, agrochemical, consumer, pharmaceutical and healthcare products are introducing complex chemicals into the environment, threatening groundwater. Toxins in groundwater increasingly detected at very low concentrations using advanced instrumentation have been determined to produce significant health risks. A rapid transition to alternate energy from shale is requiring a need to understand the risks of surface and groundwater contamination by stimulant and production fluids and methane leakage. Storage of carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations to slow greenhouse gas loading to the atmosphere is requiring a need to assess the risks of gas and brine leakage on water quality in shallow aquifers used for potable water. Bare soil evaporation and evapotranspiration controlled by the coupled soil-water, groundwater, and atmospheric dynamics have to be better represented in global circulation models used in climate change predictions. Groundwater is central to water-energy and water-food security nexuses. The “new science” to address these problems requires groundwater scientists to work at multiple physical interfaces (e.g. aquifer/ocean, land/atmospheric) as well as at the interfaces of other core disciplines such as biological, atmospheric, environmental, climatic, ecological, health, and most importantly social sciences. The most exciting research opportunities and new discoveries are at these interdisciplinary interfaces.

To highlight the need for science at disciplinary interfaces, I would like to briefly present a problem that is affecting farming communities in Sri Lanka, a number of Central American countries (e.g., El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica) and India. In 1994, an epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) was discovered among the rice paddy farmers in the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, affecting a total population of 460,000 with 69,200 diagnosed cases and a death toll of around 22,000. Funded by the US National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, I visited Sri Lanka in August of this year with a team of multidisciplinary scientific experts from the US, Europe, and South America. It is our assessment, supported by local scientists that multiple factors with a dominant groundwater contamination dimension may be contributing to this disease. These factors include agrochemicals, naturally occurring fluoride and hardness, water distribution based on an ancient system of cascaded reservoirs and canals, genetic susceptibility, and social behavior, among others. The framework needed to address this problem requires research at the interfaces of natural, health, and social sciences. The funding agencies both in the developed and developing world must re-think their research investment strategies to direct resources to promote a culture of collaboration moving away from the comfort zones of individual discipline cores and towards research at disciplinary interfaces.

I have been very fortunate to work with and learn from outstanding students and I share this honor with them. I would like to thank the many who helped and guided my career: the people of Sri Lanka who supported my free education; my teachers at the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Ceylon at Peradeniya for the excellent undergraduate education that prepared me well to venture into many adventures in science and engineering; the Asian Institute of Technology, which has the mission of training engineers to solve applied problems in the region, for giving me the opportunity to work on issues that have a direct impact on people; Prof. Subin Pinkayan, my thesis advisor for introducing me to hydrology; Colorado State University, where I had the privilege to be educated by some of the world’s leading hydrologists and porous media scientists of the time; and my Ph.D. supervisor Prof. Morel-Seytoux who challenged me through the high expectations he placed on his students.

I thank my parents for instilling the value of education early in my life. I am grateful to my family, Mali, Samantha, Tushani, Gideon and Trevor for their love and support and their own commitment to public service. This recognition will motivate me to work harder to leave millions of children around the world that includes my two new grandchildren, Naveen-Lincoln and Sidney-Anula a better, and hopefully a cleaner world than I inherited.

I know this honor comes with the responsibility to use the knowledge and experience I have accumulated during my long academic and research career to continue to serve humanity to help sustain one of our most critical natural resources. I am very much committed to this cause.

It is with excitement, profound appreciation and humility that I accept this award on behalf my students, collaborators, research sponsors, and AMAX endowment at the Colorado School of Mines.

Tissa Illangasekare

Winning Work

1. Smits, K.M., Cihan, A., Sakaki, T. and Illangasekare, T. H., "Evaporation from soils under thermal boundary conditions: Experimental and modeling investigation to compare equilibrium- and nonequilibrium-based approaches" Water Resources Research, 47 (2011).

2. Phenrat, T, Cihan, A., Kim, H.J., Mital, M. Illangasekare, T., and Lowry, G.V., "Transport and Deposition of Polymer-Modified Fe-0 Nanoparticles in 2-D Heterogeneous Porous Media: Effects of Particle Concentration, Fe-0 Content, and Coatings" Environmental Science and Technology, 44:23 (2010).

3. Sakaki, T., O'Carroll, D.M., and Illangasekare, T.H., "Direct Quantification of Dynamic Effects in Capillary Pressure for Drainage-Wetting Cycles" Vadose Zone Journal, 9:2 (2010), pp. 424-437.

4. Trevisan, L., R. Pini, A. Cihan, J. T. Birkholzer, Q. Zhou, and T. H. Illangasekare. "Experimental analysis of spatial correlation effects on capillary trapping of supercritical CO2 at the intermediate laboratory scale in heterogeneous porous media" Water Resources Research (2015).

5. Poate, J., Illangasekare, T.H, H. Kazimi, R. Kee., "Pore Scale Phenomena- Frontiers in Energy and Environment" World Scientific (2015), pp. 482.

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Surface Water Prize

Overview

Dr. Gary Parker (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, USA).

Dr. Parker, one of the world’s premier river geomorphologists, has clarified the vexing problem of meandering rivers, a field that has long been an uncharted territory of geomorphology and sediment transport. His work contributes to our understanding of the shapes rivers take and how they change themselves and their floodplains as they migrate, eroding the sediment of which old land is composed, and creating new land by emplacing fresh sediment.

His research provides models with the ability to capture the coevolution of channel sinuosity and width, so that numerical computations illustrate how meanders generate and how variations in flow bring about the development of meanders. These are effective tools for understanding the processes of meandering, which can be used in a range of engineering computations. He has also provided complex models capable of reproducing the broad range of river width–curvature correlations observed in nature. This research represents a step forward in providing general metrics for predicting width variation patterns in river systems. On a practical level, the work enables knowing what is going to happen in a reconfigured watershed before observing it.

Winner Profile

Dr. Parker is Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and W. H. Johnson Professor of Geology at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Education:

• Ph.D. 1974; University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering.
• B.Sc. 1971; Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanics and Materials Science.

Selected Awards:

2014: G. K. Gilbert Award, American Geophysical Union
2014: Water Resources Research Editor's Choice Award
2012: ASCE Journal of Hydraulic Engineering: Best technical note in 2011
2012: BSG Wiley Blackwell Award, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, best paper in 2011
2012: University of Illinois: Tau Beta Pi Daniel C. Drucker Eminent Faculty Award
2011: Best paper, 5th International Symposium on Submarine Mass Movement & their Consequences, Kyoto
2010: Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System: Lifetime Research Award
2009: Japan Society of Civil Engineering Committee on Hydroscience and Hydraulic Engineering: Best Paper
2007: International Association of Hydraulic Research: M. Selim Yalin Lifetime Achievement Award
2003: International Association of Hydraulic Research: Schoemaker Award (best paper)
2002: US National Academy of Sciences: G. K. Warren Award, Fluviatile Geomorphology
2001: Minnesota Erosion Control Society: Innovation Award
1999: International Association of Hydraulic Research: Schoemaker Award (best paper)
1995: International Association of Hydraulic Research: Arthur Thomas Ippen Award
1994: American Society of Civil Engineers: Hans Albert Einstein Award
1991: American Society of Civil Engineers: Huber Research Prize
1991: University of Minnesota, Institute of Technology: Outstanding Teacher Award
1983: American Society of Civil Engineers: Hilgard Prize (best paper)
1982: American Society of Civil Engineers: Stevens Award (best discussion)

 

Acceptance Speech

On the occasion of this ceremony, I extend my warm thanks and deep gratitude to His Royal Highness Prince Khaled Bin Sultan of Saudi Arabia, United Nations General Secretary His Excellency Mr. Ban Ki-moon and the outstanding organizing committee of the Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz International Prize for Water. The receipt of the Surface Water Prize is a great honor for me, and at the same time a responsibility; such honors must be returned by service to the community.

We have heard much discussion today about international water problems, and the need for cooperation between countries. We live in a world where, for example, one country wishes to build a dam on a river that is a major water resource for a country downstream. How should we handle such problems? I offer the wisdom of a famous story from the Islamic world, about the half-mythical Mullah Nasruddin of Seljuk Turkey.

When the Mullah had reached the age of 40, his friend said to him, “Mullah, you are 40 years old and still single. The Quran teaches that men and women should marry each other. Why do you not seek a wife?”

Mullah Nasruddin sighed, and said, “I do indeed wish to be married, but I seek the perfect woman.”

His friend said, “And have you found her?”

“I was introduced to a woman whose singing and poetry were perfect, but her cooking skills were only so so. Later, I was introduced to a woman whose cooking and singing were prefect, but her poetry was just good. And then I was introduced to a woman whose poetry and cooking were perfect, but her singing was ordinary.”

“So you never met the perfect woman.”

“Indeed, I had the honor to be introduced to such a woman.”

“Then why did you not marry her?”

The Mullah let a tear roll down his cheek. “My friend, she was looking for the perfect man.”

The wisdom of this story tells us that the only solutions we will find for big, cross-country water problems will be imperfect ones. If we first accept this, and move forward with a spirit of cooperation, we are more likely to find a path that leads to benefits for all parties.

The prize I have been awarded is in the area of Surface Water. I am particularly indebted to my Saudi Arabian colleagues in this regard, because Saudi Arabia has very little surface water. Indeed, the beautiful, freely-flowing rivers that I specialize in are not to be found in that country.

Or are they? Wadi Hanifah is a river channel flowing through a region near Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Until recently it was an ephemeral channel, like other rivers in the country. It only carried water during relatively rare times of flood. In researching for this award, however, I was delighted to find that the channel of Wadi Hanifah has been converted to a perennial stream. The channel and its floodplain form a beautiful green belt in the middle of the desert, allowing space for recreation, agricultural land for the cultivations of dates, and habitat for fish and other organisms. I have never seen Wadi Hanifah in person, but photographs show that its striking beauty is made all the more striking by the background of the surrounding desert.

And what has been the key to success here? Again, we learn from Mullah Nasruddin. The water in the river is not pristine, perfect glacial water. It is largely sewage water, but reclaimed using modern technology to the point that it is suitable for a wide variety of purposes. One of these is to bring the delight of green spaces to human beings.

Gary Parker

Winning Work

1. Parker, G., Shimizu, Y., Wilkerson, G. V., Eke, E., Abad, J. D., Lauer, J. W., Paola, C., Dietrich, W. E. and Voller, V. R., "A New Framework for Modeling the Migration Of Meandering Rivers" Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 36 (2011), pp. 70–86.

2. Asahi, K., Shimizu, Y. Nelson, J.M. and Parker, G., "Numerical simulation of river meandering with self-evolving banks" Journal of Geophysical Research Earth Surface, 118:4 (2013), pp. 2208–2229.

3. Eke. E.C., Parker, G. and Shimizu, Y., "Numerical Modeling of Erosional and Depositional Bank Processes in Migrating River Bends with Self-formed Width: Morphodynamics of Bar Push and Bank Pull" Journal of Geophysical Research Earth Surface, 119:7 (2014), pp. 1455-1483.

4. Eke, E.C., Czapiga, M., Viparelli, E., Shimizu, Y., Imran, J., Sun, T. and Parker, G., "Coevolution of width and sinuosity in meandering rivers" Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 760 (2014), pp. 127- 174.

5. Czapiga, M.J., Smith, V.B., Nittrouer, J.A., Mohrig, D., Parker, G., "Internal connectivity of meandering rivers: statistical generalization of channel hydraulic geometry" Water Resources Research, 51 (2015), pp. 7485-7500.
 

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